It pointed out in its ruling that the circumcision of Muslim boys is an established tradition and an integral part of the identity of Muslim men".In February 2010, a Jewish couple were fined for causing bodily harm to their then infant son who was circumcised in 2008 by a mohel brought in from the UK.Laws restricting, regulating, or banning circumcision, some dating back to ancient times, have been enacted in many countries and communities.

Many believe it should be limited to consent for diagnosis and treatment of medical conditions, and that it is not relevant for non-therapeutic procedures." On 1 October 2013, the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe adopted a resolution in which they state they are "particularly worried about a category of violation of the physical integrity of children," and include in this category "circumcision of young boys for religious reasons." In August 2006, a Finnish court ruled that the circumcision of a four-year-old boy arranged by his mother, who is Muslim, to be an illegal assault.

The boy's father, who had not been consulted, reported the incident to the police.

The mother and father were in a family court dispute.

The charges were dropped when the police prosecutor revealed that he did not have all family court paperwork in court and the magistrate refused to grant an adjournment.

In 1999, a Perth man won A$360,000 in damages after a doctor admitted he botched a circumcision operation at birth which left the man with a badly deformed penis.

In 2002, Queensland police charged a father with grievous bodily harm for having his two sons, then aged nine and five, circumcised without the knowledge and against the wishes of the mother.

However, he forbade the circumcision of non-Jews that were either foreign-slaves or non-Jewish members of the household, contrary to Genesis He also made it illegal for a man to convert to Judaism.

Antoninus Pius exempted the Egyptian priesthood from the otherwise universal ban on circumcision.

In such a case, a decision in favor of circumcision was said to be likely.